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Autoantibodies Neutralizing Type I Interferons in 20% of COVID-19 Deaths in a French Hospital

Abstract : Recent studies reported the presence of pre-existing autoantibodies (auto-Abs) neutralizing type I interferons (IFNs) in at least 15% of patients with critical COVID-19 pneumonia. In one study, these auto-Abs were found in almost 20% of deceased patients across all ages. We aimed to assess the prevalence and clinical impact of the auto-Abs to type I IFNs in the Seine-Saint-Denis district, which was one of the most affected areas by COVID-19 in France during the first wave. We tested for the presence of auto-Abs neutralizing type I IFNs in a cohort of patients admitted for critical COVID-19 pneumonia during the first wave in the spring of 2020 in the medicine departments at Robert Ballanger Hospital, Aulnay sous Bois. We found circulating auto-Abs that neutralized 100 pg/mL IFN-α2 and/or IFN-ω in the plasma (diluted 1/10) of 7.9% (11 of 139) of the patients hospitalized for critical COVID-19. The presence of neutralizing auto-Abs was associated with an increased risk of mortality, as these auto-Abs were detected in 21% of patients who died from COVID-19 pneumonia. Deceased patients with and without auto-Abs did not present overt clinical differences. These results confirm both the importance of type I IFN immunity in host defense against SARS-CoV-2 infection and the usefulness of detection of auto-Abs neutralizing type I IFNs in the management of patients.
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Submitted on : Thursday, June 9, 2022 - 10:11:54 AM
Last modification on : Saturday, June 25, 2022 - 3:44:10 AM

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Angélique Chauvineau-Grenier, Paul Bastard, Antoine Servajean, Adrian Gervais, Jérémie Rosain, et al.. Autoantibodies Neutralizing Type I Interferons in 20% of COVID-19 Deaths in a French Hospital. Journal of Clinical Immunology, Springer Verlag, 2022, 42 (3), pp.459-470. ⟨10.1007/s10875-021-01203-3⟩. ⟨hal-03691443⟩

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