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Aminopeptidase A contributes to biochemical, anatomical and cognitive defects in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) mouse model and is increased at early stage in sporadic AD brain

Abstract : One of the main components of senile plaques in Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-affected brain is the Aβ peptide species harboring a pyroglutamate at position three pE3-Aβ. Several studies indicated that pE3-Aβ is toxic, prone to aggregation and serves as a seed of Aβ aggregation. The cyclisation of the glutamate residue is produced by glutaminyl cyclase, the pharmacological and genetic reductions of which significantly alleviate AD-related anatomical lesions and cognitive defects in mice models. The cyclisation of the glutamate in position 3 requires prior removal of the Aβ N-terminal aspartyl residue to allow subsequent biotransformation. The enzyme responsible for this rate-limiting catalytic step and its relevance as a putative trigger of AD pathology remained yet to be established. Here, we identify aminopeptidase A as the main exopeptidase involved in the N-terminal truncation of Aβ and document its key contribution to AD-related anatomical and behavioral defects. First, we show by mass spectrometry that human recombinant aminopeptidase A (APA) truncates synthetic Aβ1-40 to yield Aβ2-40. We demonstrate that the pharmacological blockade of APA with its selective inhibitor RB150 restores the density of mature spines and significantly reduced filopodia-like processes in hippocampal organotypic slices cultures virally transduced with the Swedish mutated Aβ-precursor protein (βAPP). Pharmacological reduction of APA activity and lowering of its expression by shRNA affect pE3-42Aβ- and Aβ1-42-positive plaques and expressions in 3xTg-AD mice brains. Further, we show that both APA inhibitors and shRNA partly alleviate learning and memory deficits observed in 3xTg-AD mice. Importantly, we demonstrate that, concomitantly to the occurrence of pE3-42Aβ-positive plaques, APA activity is augmented at early Braak stages in sporadic AD brains. Overall, our data indicate that APA is a key enzyme involved in Aβ N-terminal truncation and suggest the potential benefit of targeting this proteolytic activity to interfere with AD pathology.
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https://hal-univ-paris.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03239400
Contributor : Equipe Hal Paris Diderot <>
Submitted on : Thursday, May 27, 2021 - 2:38:30 PM
Last modification on : Friday, July 23, 2021 - 3:53:01 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Saturday, August 28, 2021 - 7:28:01 PM

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Audrey Valverde, Julie Dunys, Thomas Lorivel, Delphine Debayle, Anne-Sophie Gay, et al.. Aminopeptidase A contributes to biochemical, anatomical and cognitive defects in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) mouse model and is increased at early stage in sporadic AD brain. Acta Neuropathologica, Springer Verlag, 2021, 141 (6), pp.823-839. ⟨10.1007/s00401-021-02308-0⟩. ⟨hal-03239400⟩

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