, On the concept and process of "relocation" see Francesco Casetti, Screen, vol.5, pp.1-12, 2009.

Q. Bellour, , p.14

J. Godard and &. , Cinema is that which is bigger than us, something we have to look up to," is quoted in the "cinema zone" of Chris Marker's CD Rom Immemory, 1988.

Q. Bellour, , p.28

, The Cinema Spectator: A Special Memory, La Querelle des dispositifs, vol.12, pp.48-52, 2000.

. Éric-de-kuyper, L'Autre Histoire du cinéma, ou la perte du spectacle: qui gagne, qui perd?, the Very Beginning, at the Very End, pp.143-151, 2010.

R. Barthes, En sortant du cinéma, The Rustle of Language, vol.23, p.348, 1975.

, From Olivier Assayas to Theo Angelopoulos, the Dardenne as well as the Cohen brothers, Hou Hsiao-hsien

, On this topic, see Bellour's account of Myriam Hansen's story about young female students watching films on televisions while exchanging comments on their mobile phones, vol.15

. Ibid,

, On digital film and indexicality, see Niels Niessen, Screen, vol.52, pp.307-326, 2011.

A. Ferenczi and M. Braun, Des images nourries au grain, Télérama, vol.3286, 1920.

, The fast rate of technological obsolescence does in fact put digital archiving on the spot: the life expectancy of digital formats is small and therefore does not offer the long-term safety of celluloid. See the conclusions to John Belton's article "Digital Cinema: A False Revolution, See also the questions raised in the DigitalFilm Tree report, Archiving in Media and Entertainment Market: Strategies and Best Practices, vol.100, pp.98-114, 2002.

, What is lost in the move to the digital is the imprint of time, the visible degradation of the image, The Indexical and the Concept of Medium Specificity, vol.18, pp.129-152, 2007.

L. Mulvey, Death 24x a Second: Stillness and the Moving Image, p.57, 2006.

, Master Flea: A Fairy-Tale" in Seven Adventures of Two Friends (1822), in which a showman uses a magnifying lens and projected light to turn his flea circus into a kind of live magic lantern spectacle. One of the insects, the Master flea, The film's monster evokes E. T. A. Hoffmann's

, The reference to Méliès is even more central in Martin Scorsese's recent adaptation of The Invention of Hugo Cabret in his 3D film Hugo, 2011.

, The shadow of Charles Chaplin's Limelight (1952) thus looms over Chomet's film, as it did over Hazanavicius's The Artist

P. See and . Bradshaw, or the account of a round table interview at the Berlin Film Festival in Electric Sheep, the New York Times review by Manohla Dargis, 2010.

, Jennifer Barker points out how the film's "texture is completely manufactured and processed. ? This film's skin has no grain to it, no roughness, no messiness: it is as smooth as a plastic Magic Eight ball, The Tactile Eye: Touch and the Cinematic Experience, p.45, 2009.

L. Manovich, In a similar vein, the term proposed by Gaudreault and Marion, La Fin du cinéma?, The Language of New Media, vol.29, 2001.

I. Garwood, The Sense of Film Narration, 2013.

P. Arthur, The Status of Found Footage, Spectator, vol.20, pp.57-70, 1999.

, The Aesthetics and Politics of Obsolescence: Hand-Made Film in the Era of the Digital, For an analysis of materialist practices in the age of digital filmmaking see Martine Beugnet and Kim Knowles, vol.2, pp.279-299, 2007.

S. Beugnet and . Knowles, The Aesthetics and Politics of Obsolescence," and Tacita Dean's eloquent defense of celluloid film practice in Film, 2011.

M. Rousset, Tramer les vitesses, Cent ans de cinéma expérimental, 2002.

, The kind of aesthetic at work in Chant could be related to what is sometimes described as aesthetics of the ruin, or aesthetics of decay. See André Habib, Protée, vol.35, issue.2, pp.15-26, 2007.

A. Rousset and . Website, , 2002.

G. Didi-huberman and L. 'empreinte, , 1997.

C. Merlhiot and J. Fitoussi, , 2014.

. Ibid,

, A sense of veracity, immediacy, and presence are three of the effects conventionally associated with the voice-over. See Kaja Silverman, The Acoustic Mirror, p.43, 1988.

, Immune to the beauties of Fitoussi's film, Nicolas Azalbert dismisses it as a, Cahiers du cinéma, vol.652, p.74, 2010.

, On the "tiers-cinéma," see Vincent Dieutre's texts on the website www.pointligneplan.com, and Vincent Dieutre, La Lettre du cinéma, vol.21, pp.75-85, 2003.

. Ibid, , p.75

, Eric Garandeau, emphasized French cinema's current good health. While recognizing the continuing precarious situation of independent cinema, his speech paid homage to the national and international success of films such as The Artist. It also unreservedly celebrated the progress that digital represents, On the occasion of his 2013 New Year speech at the Cinémathèque française, the director of the Centre National du Cinéma

, That is, the simultaneous experience of the diegetic time, of the time of the projection, and of the sense of rhythm created by the film itself. See Jacques Aumont's useful summary in Que reste-t-il du cinéma?, pp.96-97

T. Frémaux, But yes, we will still go to the cinema in 20 or 50 years. In 1895, the Lumière cinematograph won over Edison's kinetoscope because spectators at the time wanted to see 'a film on a large screen, together,' to share the laughter, the tears, and their vision of the world. This remains true, current head of the Cannes Film Festival, reaffirmed his confidence in terms that may not, in retrospect, seem as idealistic as they initially sounded, vol.38, p.9, 2004.

. Aumont, Que reste-t-il du cinéma?, p.55