. Andrews-on, among others, for their feedback. I am also indebted, for the illustrations of this article, to Marc Boulay (University of St Violet Hamilton (Wilson Centre for Photography), Garance Chabert and Carole Troufléaux (Société Française de Photographie). I am responsible for all translations unless otherwise specified. ii Many webpages today still cite this statement, found in Helmut Gernsheim's Creative Photography (1962) and included in Susan Sontag's anthology of quotes in On Photography, I wish to thank the organizers, p.p, 1975.

S. Iii, where he voices a concern about the historiographic under-representation of " photography from Scotland " , while insisting that his survey addresses photography from and about Scotland, without assuming something like a national Scottish photographic character. iv Except perhaps when this subject is treated in the stylistic mode of national " schools " and " traditions " , which I will discuss in the context of the 1850s (see especially below notes 27 and 28) For a recent, suggestive assessment of national " trends " in 19 th -century photo-literature, see Paul Edwards, Tendances nationales et tendances économiques dans la constitution de l'objet photolittéraire Littérature et photographie, pp.37-45, 2007.

F. Vi-see and . Arago, vii On Arago's politics, see Anne McCauley, François Arago and the Politics of the French Invention of Photography Daniel P. Younger, Multiple Views: Logan Grant Essays on Photography, pp.516-517, 1858.

F. Xiii-see and . Brunet, xiv Quoted by Helmut Gernsheim, The Origins of Photography, Etudes photographiques 223. xv André Gunthert, pp.122-139, 1983.

S. Xix and . Gunthert, Photography in the Palace of Glass The Athenaeum, n°1233 where one reads the following remarks Daguerreotypes are largely displayed by the French, -as might have been expected, that country being proud of the discovery: -but the examples exhibited by the Americans surpass in general beauty of effect any which we have examined from other countries. This has been attributed to a difference in the character of solar light as modified by atmospheric conditions; we are not, however, disposed to believe that to be the case. [?] we know of no physical cause by which the superiority can be explained, -and we are quite disposed to be sufficiently honest to admit that the mode of manipulation has more to do with the result than any atmospheric influence. " (quotation provided by A. Gunthert) xx See Taft, p. 69, for the quote of The Illustrated London News and a technical-professional explanation of the American success; for a longer discussion of this success, and, for a general discussion of the American daguerreian " standard, ibidem, chap. 4. xxi See André Rouillé, pp.632-179, 1851.

E. Lacan, Esquisses photographiques, [1856], reprint Paris, pp.21-22, 1979.

. Xxv-ibid, In this passage the jury also expressed their regrets that Fenton's views of the Crimean war and especially the camp at Sebastopol were not displayed, pp.573-574

. Xxxviii-eastlake, Roger Taylor, in L'image révélée, p. 21, notes that " climate conditions " were an " essential " point in the choice of processes (especially between collodion on glass and was paper) in the 1850s, p.89